AP2HI’s vision is pioneering tuna fisheries development through an ecosystem approach for business and society and to achieve sustainable fisheries. One of its mission is to bridge the upstream-downstream fishery system for pole & line and handline products based on traceability principles as stipulated in the FIP. AP2HI and strategic partner (IPNLF: International Pole-and-line Foundation) has implemented the FIP’s activities for over the last 5 years. This article will explain regarding the current Handline fisheries improvement activities.
Sustainable Fisheries is a concept of sustainable fishing, where fish stock is available sustainably, habitat is well maintained and the fisheries management are handling the fish by following the principles of sustainable fisheries, in order for us to maintain and improve the coastal community welfare whose lives depend on fisheries. Based on the statement above, AP2HI and partner are implementing FIP through Fisheries Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) standard, consisting of 3 principles and performance indicators, which are,
Principle 1: Sustainable Fish Stocks
Principle 2: Minimising Environmental Impact
Principle 3: Effective Fisheries Management
However, if the three principles and the value of performance indicators have not yet reached the requirement, then a FIP program is needed to improve the activities and increase the value of their performance indicators. To implement a FIP program, support from various stakeholder is required. AP2HI and partner (IPNLF) received support from the government sector, Ministry of Marine Agency and Fisheries (KKP) through Directorate General of Capture Fisheries (DJPT) – Directorate of Management of Fisheries Resources (Dit. PSDI), and also support from local government. We also receive support for our FIP Program from non-government organization (Masyarakat Dan Perikanan Indonesia Foundation – MDPI, Sustainable Fisheries Partnership – SFP, and LINI Foundation), private sector (fishing companies, food processing unit which are AP2HI members), support also come from academic sector (Pusriskan, BRSDM Perikanan, local universities).
One of the fisheries improvement categories implemented is a complete monitoring package for fishing vessel, in this case is HL vessels located in North Sulawesi, Bitung, Fisheries Management Areas (WPP) 715 and WPP 716.
Bitung City is one of the largest landing centres of tuna fisheries sector in Indonesia. One of its main product are skipjack and yellowfin tuna, with Handline as one of fishing gear. HL vessels in Bitung have its own characteristic; they have a Mother Ship and Pakura (small boat with engine 10-20 PK that fishermen use to circle around and catch tuna). The number of pakura carried depends on the size of the ship, if ship size is 10-20 GT, they carry about 3-7 pakura. The main catch for this vessel is yellowfin tuna, some of by-catch are mackerel, dolphinfish, marlin, etc.
Picture 1. Example of handline vessel (Mother Ship and Pakura)
HL fisheries with yellowfin tuna as main catch in Bitung, is included as one of Unit of Assessment (UoA) of MSC fisheries certification. AP2HI member companies that takes part in this process are PT. Nutrindo Fresfood Internasional, PT. Marina Nusantara Selaras, PT. Chen Woo Fishery, PT. Sari Tuna Makmur. These companies, facilitated by AP2HI, initiatively implemented a complete monitoring package for HL vessels owned by the companies, also for their supplier’s vessels. The complete monitoring package are,
1. Monitoring the ETP interaction with Time Lapse Camera (TLC)
Picture 2. TLC installation on Handline Vessel
TLC installation on HL vessels, being one way to monitor the interaction of ETP (Endangered, Threaten, Protected) species with vessel (and everything inside the vessel) and to monitor fishermen activities while on board. TLC installation is proven quite effective to replace Observer On Board, as some vessels (especially for small boat) has no room to assign another person on board. Although, TLC also has weakness as it has limited angles/viewpoint to observe conditions all around (Picture 2.). Thus, based on the TLC monitoring results, there is zero catch of ETP using this gear.
2. Monitoring activities inside the vessels with Observer On Board
Picture 3. Observer On Board activity while weighing yellowfin tuna
Observer On Board is one of KKP program that spreads throughout Indonesia. To support this program, which is in line with MSC certification program, AP2HI takes part to place Observer On Board on bigger HL vessel (around 14-30 GT), that collaborates with AP2HI member companies. The standard protocol used for Observer to get On Board HL vessel is the result of collaborative development between AP2HI, IPNLF, MDPI, Dit. PSDI and Pusriskan. With the existence of Observer On Board, it is expected that production data and fish composition, as well as interactions with ETP can be seen clearly and more accurately, and able to obtain more complete information. The drawbacks for such roles is the higher expense in order to pay the observers.
3. Monitoring Vessel’s Movement with Vessel Tracking Device
Monitoring using Vessel Tracking Device aimed to see the vessel’s movement. Vessel’s movement in accordance with the permits that are owned becomes the basis for the vessel to comply with regulations. Installation of this device has other benefits depending on the device’s specification such as alert system while sailing.
Picture 4. Vessel tracking device installation
4. Monitoring Fish Composition with Port Sampling Method
Port sampling activities are conducted by Enumerator that trained by AP2HI and partner with standard port sampling protocol developed collaboratively between KKP, MDPI, AP2HI and IPNLF. The results obtained from this activity are the results of landed fish production data and the catch composition on type of fish caught. These data and information can be used as verification data from members and as well as input for KKP in preparing tuna management plan in Indonesia.
Picture 5. Port sampling activities (weighing fish)
By this complete monitoring package, all data will be verified mutually, until the data owned becomes robust and more accurate to also be used as baseline for next improvement.